Isotopes Used in Medicine.     Part – Three.

Dear friends , here is a list of Isotopes used for Medicine Purposes.The life of each Isotope is shown next to the names. Also specific usage guide indicated. Please keep your observations clear and advise friends , family members when the need arise. 
SCIENCE, RESEARCH REVIEWS,Information from various sources just for knowledge building and read reviews for emergency quick guide only.

Reactor Radioisotopes (half-life indicated) 

Molybdenum-99 (66 h): Used as the ‘parent’ in a generator to produce technetium-99m. 

Technetium-99m (6 h): Used in to image the skeleton and heart muscle in particular, but also for brain, thyroid, lungs (perfusion and ventilation), liver, spleen, kidney (structure and filtration rate), gall bladder, bone marrow, salivary and lacrimal glands, heart blood pool, infection and numerous specialised medical studies. 

Bismuth-213 (46 min): Used for TAT. 

Chromium-51 (28 d): Used to label red blood cells and quantify gastro- intestinal protein loss. 

Cobalt-60 (10.5 mth): Formerly used for external beam radiotherapy. 

Copper-64 (13 h): Used to study genetic diseases affecting copper metabolism, such as Wilson’s and Menke’s diseases. 

Dysprosium-165 (2 h): Used as an aggregated hydroxide for synovectomy treatment of arthritis. 

Erbium-169 (9.4 d): Use for relieving arthritis pain in synovial joints. 

Holmium-166 (26 h): Being developed for diagnosis and treatment of liver tumours. 

Iodine-125 (60 d): Used in cancer brachytherapy (prostate and brain), also diagnostically to evaluate the filtration rate of kidneys and to diagnose deep vein thrombosis in the leg. It is also widely used in radioimmuno- assays to show the presence of hormones in tiny quantities. Iodine-131 (8 d): Widely used in treating thyroid cancer and in imaging the thyroid; also in diagnosis of abnormal liver function, renal (kidney) blood flow and urinary tract obstruction. A strong gamma emitter, but used for beta therapy. 

Iridium-192 (74 d): Supplied in wire form for use as an internal radiotherapy source for cancer treatment (used then removed). 

Iron-59 (46 d): Used in studies of iron metabolism in the spleen. 

Lutetium-177 (6.7 d): Lu-177 is increasingly important as it emits just enough gamma for imaging while the beta radiation does the therapy on small (eg endocrine) tumours. Its half-life is long enough to allow sophisticated preparation for use. 

Palladium-103 (17 d): Used to make brachytherapy permanent implant seeds for early stage prostate cancer. 

Phosphorus-32 (14 d): Used in the treatment of polycythemia vera (excess red blood cells). Beta emitter. 

Potassium-42 (12 h): Used for the determination of exchangeable potassium in coronary blood flow. 

Rhenium-186 (3.8 d): Used for pain relief in bone cancer. Beta emitter with weak gamma for imaging. 

Rhenium-188 (17 h): Used to beta irradiate coronary arteries from an angioplasty balloon. 

Samarium-153 (47 h): Sm-153 is very effective in relieving the pain of secondary cancers lodged in the bone, sold as Quadramet. Also very effective for prostate and breast cancer. Beta emitter. 

Selenium-75 (120 d): Used in the form of seleno-methionine to study the production of digestive enzymes. 

Sodium-24 (15 h): For studies of electrolytes within the body. 

Strontium-89 (50 d): Very effective in reducing the pain of prostate and bone cancer. Beta emitter. 

Xenon-133 (5 d): Used for pulmonary (lung) ventilation studies. 

Ytterbium-169 (32 d): Used for cerebrospinal fluid studies in the brain. 

Yttrium-90 (64 h): Used for cancer brachytherapy and as silicate colloid for the relieving the pain of arthritis in larger synovial joints. Pure beta emitter. 

Radioisotopes of caesium, gold and ruthenium are also used in brachytherapy. 

Cyclotron Radioisotopes 

Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13, Oxygen-15, Fluorine-18: These are positron emitters used in PET for studying brain physiology and pathology, in particular for localising epileptic focus, and in dementia, psychiatry and neuropharmacology studies. They also have a significant role in cardiology. F-18 in FDG has become very important in detection of cancers and the monitoring of progress in their treatment, using PET. 

Cobalt-57 (272 d): Used as a marker to estimate organ size and for in-vitro diagnostic kits. 

Gallium-67 (78 h): Used for tumour imaging and localisation of inflammatory lesions (infections). 

Indium-111 (2.8 d): Used for specialist diagnostic studies, eg brain studies, infection and colon transit studies. 

Iodine-123 (13 h): Increasingly used for diagnosis of thyroid function, it is a gamma emitter without the beta radiation of I-131. 

Krypton-81m (13 sec) from Rubidium-81 (4.6 h): Kr-81m gas can yield functional images of pulmonary ventilation, e.g. in asthmatic patients, and for the early diagnosis of lung diseases and function. 

Rubidium-82 (65 h): Convenient PET agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. 

Strontium-92 (25 d): Used as the ‘parent’ in a generator to produce Rb-82. 

Thallium-201 (73 h): Used for diagnosis of coronary artery disease other heart conditions such as heart muscle death and for location of low-grade lymphomas.


To Be Continued…..  

One Comment Add yours

  1. reemasandhu says:

    Dear mercury,

    With the mineral composition to isotopes is very interesting.

    Combating diseases with theoretical analysis of disposition increase chances for treatment widely.

    I am highly impressed with the list gives the mind active resolution to our life threatening health epidemic.

    Please share more of these article.

    Thank you
    Regards,
    Reema

    Liked by 1 person

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